Academic Qualification: A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of an education, such as colleges and universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study.

Adjusted Net Enrolment Ratio (ANER): Enrolment of the official age group for a given level of education either at that level or the levels above, expressed as a percentage of the population in that age group.

Adult Literacy Rate: Number of literate persons aged 15 and above, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group.

Age-specific Enrolment Ratio (ASER): Enrolment of a given age or age group, regardless of the level of education in which pupils or students are enrolled, expressed as a percentage of the population of the same age or age group.

Basic Education: The whole range of educational activities, taking place in various settings (formal, non‐formal and informal), that aim to meet basic learning needs.

Compulsory Education: Educational programs that children and young people are legally obliged to attend, usually defined in terms of a number of grades or an age range, or both.

Deeni Madaris: These are educational institutions in which formal religious education is provided. The degree provided by these institutions is equal to different levels of education provided by formal institutions.

Dropout Rate by Grade: Percentage of students who drop out of a given grade in a given school year.

Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE): Services and programs that support children’s survival, growth, development and learning – including health, nutrition and hygiene, and cognitive, social, emotional and physical development – from birth to entry into primary school.

Education: A social science that encompasses teaching and learning specific knowledge, beliefs, and skills.

Education Policy: Education policy is the collection of long term direction, commitments, intentions, rules, both stated and implicit, or the regulations, in practice that set the direction for education sector or a particular system or institutions. Education policy analysis is the scholarly study of education policy.

EFA Development Index (EDI): Composite index aimed at measuring overall progress towards EFA. At present, the EDI incorporates four of the most easily quantifiable EFA goals – universal primary education as measured by the primary adjusted net enrolment ratio; adult literacy as measured by the adult literacy rate; gender parity as measured by the gender-specific EFA index; and quality of education as measured by the survival rate to grade 5. Its value is the arithmetic mean of the observed values of these four indicators.

Enrolment: Number of pupils or students enrolled at a given level of education, regardless of age.

Enrolment by Stage: Enrolment by Stage defined as those students who are enrolled in one particular section of the school. For example primary stage enrolment not only includes classes 1 to 5 of Mosque & Primary school but it also includes primary section of Middle, High & Higher Secondary schools.

Entrance Age (official): Age at which pupils or students would enter a given program or level of education assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level, studied full‐time throughout and progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade. The theoretical entrance age to a given program or level may be very different from the actual or even the most common entrance age.

Gender Parity Index (GPI): Ratio of female to male values of a given indicator. A GPI between 0.97 and 1.03 indicates parity between the genders. A GPI below 0.97 indicates a disparity in favour of males. A GPI above 1.03 indicates a disparity in favour of females.

Grade: Stage of instruction usually equivalent to one complete school year.

Graduate: A person who has successfully completed the final year of a level or sublevel of education.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year (see also Gross National Product).

Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER): Total enrolment in a specific level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population in the official age group corresponding to this level of education. The GER can exceed 100% because of early or late entry and/or grade repetition.

Gross Intake Rate (GIR): Total number of new entrants to a given grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the official school entrance age for that grade.

Gross National Product (GNP): The total value of goods produced and services provided during one year. It is equal to the Gross Domestic Product plus the net income from foreign investments.

Higher Education: Education provided by universities and other institutions that award academic degrees. Higher realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as tertiary education) and the graduate (or postgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as quaternary education or graduate school). Higher education differs from other forms of post‐secondary education such as vocational education. However, most professional education is included within higher education, and many postgraduate qualifications are strongly vocationally or professionally oriented, for example in disciplines such as law and medicine.

International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED): Classification system designed to serve as an instrument for assembling, compiling and presenting comparable indicators and statistics of education both within countries and internationally. The system, introduced in 1976, was revised in 1997 and 2011.

Literacy: According to UNESCO’s 1958 definition, the term refers to the ability of an individual to read and write with understanding a simple short statement related to his/her everyday life. The concept of literacy has since evolved to embrace several skill domains, each conceived on a scale of different mastery levels and serving different purposes.

Middle and Secondary Schools: Middle and Secondary schools are institutions in which children receive middle, high and higher secondary stages of education. However, in most of the Middle and Secondary Schools children are also receiving primary stage of education.

Net Attendance Rate (NAR): Number of pupils in the official age group for a given level of education who attend school at that level, expressed as a percentage of the population in that age group.

Net Enrolment Ratio (NER): Enrolment of the official age group for a given level of education, expressed as a percentage of the population in that age group.

Net Enrolment Rate Total (NERT)-Middle/Lower Secondary: Number of pupils of the official school age group for middle/lower secondary education who are enrolled in any level of education, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding school age population.

Net Enrolment Rate Total (NERT)-High & Higher Secondary/Upper Secondary: Number of pupils of the official school age group for upper secondary education who are enrolled in any level of education, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding school age population.

Net Intake Rate (NIR): New entrants to the first grade of primary education who are of the official primary school entrance age, expressed as a percentage of the population of that age.

New Entrants: Pupils entering a given level of education for the first time; the difference between enrolment and repeaters in the first grade of the level.

Non‐Formal Education: Learning activities typically organized outside the formal education system. The term is generally contrasted with formal and informal education. In different contexts, non‐formal education covers educational activities aimed at imparting adult literacy, basic education for out‐of‐school children and youth, life skills, work skills and general culture.

Out-of-School Adolescents: Those of lower secondary school age who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary school.

Out-of-School Children (OOSC): Children in the official primary school age range who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary school.

Pre‐Primary Education(ISCED level 0): Programs at the initial stage of organized instruction, primarily designed to introduce very young children, aged at least 3 years, to a school-type environment and provide a bridge between home and school. Variously referred to as infant education, nursery education, pre-school education, kindergarten or early childhood education, such programs are the more formal component of ECCE. Upon completion of these programs, children continue their education at ISCED 1 (primary education).

Primary Cohort Completion Rate: Proxy measure of primary school completion. It focuses on children who have access to school, measuring how many successfully complete it. The primary cohort completion rate is the product of the survival rate to the last grade and the percentage of those in the last grade who successfully graduate.

Primary Education (ISCED level 1): Programs generally designed to give pupils a sound basic education in reading, writing and mathematics, and an elementary understanding of subjects such as history, geography, natural sciences, social sciences, art and music.

Primary School: A primary school is an institution in which children receive the first stage of education known as primary or elementary education. However in Pakistan there are some primary schools located in rural areas are also providing education other than primary stage.

Private Enrolment: Number of children enrolled in an institution that is not operated by public authority but controlled and managed, whether for profit or not, by a private body such as non‐government organization, religious body, special interest group, foundation or business enterprise.

Private Institutions: Institutions that are not operated by public authorities but are controlled and managed, whether for profit or not, by private bodies such as non- governmental organizations, religious bodies, special interest groups, foundations or business enterprises.

Professional Qualification: Designation earned by a person to certify that he is qualified to perform a job. Certification indicates that the individual has a specific knowledge, skills, or abilities in the view of the certifying body. Professional certifications are awarded by professional bodies and corporations.

Public Education: Schooling provided for the general public by the government, whether national or local is called public education.

Public Expenditure on Education: Total current and capital expenditure on education by local, regional and national governments, including municipalities. Household contributions are excluded. The term covers public expenditure for both public and private institutions.

Pupil: A child enrolled in pre‐primary or primary education. Youth and adults enrolled at more advanced levels are often referred to as students.

Pupil Teacher Ratio (PTR): Average number of pupils per teacher at a specific level of education.

Purchasing Power Parity (PPP): An exchange rate adjustment that accounts for price differences between countries, allowing international comparisons of real output and income.

Repetition Rate by Grade: Number of repeaters in a given grade in a given school year, expressed as a percentage of enrolment in that grade the previous school year.

School Age Population: Population of the age group officially corresponding to a given level of education, whether enrolled in school or not.

School Life Expectancy (SLE): Number of years a child of school entrance age is expected to spend in school or university, including years spent on repetition. It is the sum of the age-specific enrolment ratios for primary, secondary, post-secondary non-tertiary and tertiary education. A school life expectancy can be calculated for each level of education, including pre-primary education.

Secondary Education: It is a period of education which, in most contemporary educational systems of the world, follows directly after primary education, and which may be followed by tertiary, “post‐secondary”, or “higher” education (e.g., university).

Secondary Education (ISCED levels 2 and 3): Program made up of two stages: lower and upper secondary. Lower secondary education (ISCED 2) is generally designed to continue the basic programs of the primary level but the teaching is typically more subject- focused, requiring more specialized teachers for each subject area. The end of this level often coincides with the end of compulsory education. In upper secondary education (ISCED 3), the final stage of secondary education in most countries, instruction is often organized even more along subject lines and teachers typically need a higher or more subject-specific qualification than at ISCED level 2.

Survival Rate by Grade: Percentage of a cohort of students who are enrolled in the first grade of an education cycle in a given school year and are expected to reach a specified grade, regardless of repetition.

Teachers or Teaching Staff: Number of persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualification.

Teachers Training Institutions: Teachers training institutions provide pre‐service and in‐service trainings (certificates, diploma and degrees). The teacher training institutions are managed by the Bureau of Curriculum and Extension for pre‐service programs while the Provincial Institutes of Teacher Education (PITEs) are responsible for in‐service training programs. Programs designed mainly to prepare students for direct entry into a particular occupation or trade.

Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET): Programs designed mainly to prepare students for direct entry into a particular occupation or trade (or class of occupations or trades).

Tertiary Education: It is also referred to as third-stage or third level education. The educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education such as high or secondary school. Tertiary education is commonly higher education which prepares students for a quaternary education.

Tertiary or Higher Education (ISCED levels 5 and 6): Programs with an educational content more advanced than what is offered at ISCED levels 3 and 4. The first stage of tertiary education, ISCED level 5, includes level 5A, composed of largely theoretically based programs intended to provide sufficient qualifications for gaining entry to advanced research programs and professions with high skill requirements; and level 5B, where programs are generally more practical, technical and/or occupationally specific. The second stage of tertiary education, ISCED level 6, comprises programs devoted to advanced study and original research, and leading to the award of an advanced research qualification.

Trained Teacher: Teacher who has received the minimum organized teacher training (pre-service or in-service) normally required for teaching at the relevant level in a given country.

Transition Rate to Secondary Education: New entrants to the first grade of secondary education in a given year, expressed as a percentage of the number of pupils enrolled in the final grade of middle education in the previous year. The indicator measures transition to secondary general education only.

Youth Literacy Rate: Number of literate persons aged 15 to 24, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group.