1 Introduction
1.1 Statistics
1.2 Variable
1.3 Measurement
1.4 Measurement Scales
2 Exploring Data with Graphs & Numerical Summaries
2.1 Graphs
2.2 Numerical Summaries
3 Descriptive Statistics
4 Correlation Analysis
5 An Introduction to Linear Models
5.1 Regression Analysis
5.2 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
5.3 Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)
6 An Introduction to R
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Statistics Variable Measurement Measurement Scales Nominal Data Example Example Ordinal Data Example Two Way Contingency Table Example Example Count Data Example Continuous Data Example Example Measures of Centeral Tendency Measures of Dispersion Measures of Skewness Measures of Skewness Statistics Statistics is the science of uncertainty & variability Statistics turns data into information Data -> Information -> Knowledge -> Wisdom Data Driven Decisions (3Ds) Statistics is the interpretation of Science Statistics is the Art & Science of learning from data Variable Characteristic that may vary from individual to individual Height, Weight, CGPA etc Measurement Process of assigning numbers or labels to objects or states in accordance with logically accepted rules Measurement Scales Nominal Scale: Obersvations may be classified into mutually exclusive & exhaustive classes or categories Ordinal Scale: Obersvations may be ranked Interval Scale: Difference between obersvations is meaningful Ratio Scale: Ratio between obersvations is meaningful & true zero point Nominal Data Example The following data shows the gender of a sample of twenty students from the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

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